Complete Protein Foods - Foods High in Protein

mixed salad with egg whitesQuality of foods and supplements, as complete protein sources, is often measured by amino acid profile of foods and supplements - more essential amino acids food or supplement has, it is considered better protein source.

Note: This is serious, 2500+ words article based on numerous scientific studies, information available on-line and off-line, decades of experience in sport nutrition and perhaps most important - common sense. And everything is open to debate...

Meat eaters often consider their nutrition superior to vegan or even lacto-ovo vegetarian nutrition. This is somewhat true - but with many plant based protein supplements on the market today, this difference is getting smaller and smaller.

For a protein to be considered 'complete', it must have minimum amount of all essential amino acids. This minimum of amino acids, that is sufficient to satisfy human requirements for sustaining life is given in the following table:

Essential Amino Acid mg/g of Protein
Histidine 18
Isoleucine 25
Leucine 55
Lysine 51
Methionine + Cystine 25
Phenylalanine + Tyrosine 47
Threonine 27
Tryptophan 7
Valine 32

Note: 'mg/g of Protein' means milligrams of essential amino acid per one gram of consumed protein. This provide us with ratio and minimum amount of required amino acids.

However, Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) of protein is something that many people disagree about. Generally, for most of the population (at least 98%), protein RDA is around:

- 1.5 g/kg/day for infants,
- 1.1 g/kg/day for 1-3y,
- 0.95g/kg/day for 4-13y,
- 0.85 g/kg/day for 14-18y,
- 0.8 g/kg/day for adults,
- 1.1 g/kg/day for pregnant (using pre-pregnancy weight) and lactating women.

On the other hand, fitness enthusiasts, bodybuilders and active athletes are anything but 98% of population and their required daily protein intake is higher - some people say that active athletes should be taking around 2g of protein par 1kg (around 1g of protein per pound) of lean body weight, but some people recommend even more.

Personally, I cycle both carbs and protein - I increase my protein intake from around 1.5g/kg (on non-training days) up to a 2.5g/kg (on training days), sometimes more, sometimes less. But, this is me and my body - please, read our Disclaimer. This article is NOT debate about daily protein intake, it is about PROTEIN QUALITY!

Essential Amino Acid g per 100g of Protein
Histidine 1.8
Isoleucine 2.5
Leucine 5.5
Lysine 5.1
Methionine + Cystine 2.5
Phenylalanine + Tyrosine 4.7
Threonine 2.7
Tryptophan 0.7
Valine 3.2

Note: If you are consuming 100g of protein per day, regardless if that is your RDA or you are taking 2g/kg or even more of protein per day, than you should be consuming essential amino acids in amounts (or more) given in the table on the left.

Also, these amounts are just basic measure of protein quality, not taking into the account protein digestibility, or the method in which the food was prepared and few more things that would just over-complicate this analysis with no significant changes.

Long story short - for food to be considered COMPLETE PROTEIN source, it must provide 1.8g of histidine, 2.5g of isoleucine, 5.5g of leucine, 5.1g of lysine, 2.5g of methionine and cystine, 4.7g of phenylalanine and tyrosine, 2.7g of threonine, 0.7g of tryptophan and 3.2g of valine per 100g of protein. Or more!

Essential Amino Acid's Minimum Daily Intake

To complicate things little bit more, here is an additional table of recommended MINIMUM daily requirement of essential amino acids for adults (these are WHO recommendations). Keep in mind that these numbers change often and revisions by WHO are every few years or so ...

Essential Amino Acid mg/kg mg per 50kg mg per 100kg
Histidine 10 500 1000
Isoleucine 20 100 2000
Leucine 39 1950 3900
Lysine 30 1500 3000
Methionine + Cystine 10.4 + 4.1 (total ~15) 750 1500
Phenylalanine + Tyrosine total 25 1250 2500
Threonine 15 750 1500
Tryptophan 4 200 400
Valine 26 1300 2600

Now, if someone wants, data from first three tables can be cross-referenced and things can get even more complicated :) It is important to remember that these recommendations are minimum amounts for people who have sitting jobs and not for active athletes.

Food Amino Acids Profiles - Comparison Table

Amino acids profiles are given in the following table - values of amino acids are their amounts in 100g of protein. Also, grams of protein, carbs, fats and fibers per 100g of food or supplement are also given for comparison.

Cystine and Methionine columns and Phenylalanine and Tyrosine columns are gven in different colours.

Reading this table - if your protein RDA is 100g, that means that you require at least 1.8g of histidine, 2.5g of isoleucine, 5.5g of leucine, 5.1g of lysine, 2.5g of methionine and cystine, 4.7g of phenylalanine and tyrosine, 2.7g of threonine, 0.7g of tryptophan and 3.2g of valine each day to sustain your body, and any single food having less than that, can't be considered 'complete protein food'.

However, if your protein RDA is, for example, 75g of protein and your daily protein intake is 100g, then foods having slightly less amino acids than previously mentioned (per 100g of protein), can be considered 'complete protein food'. Remember - these are ratios of essential amino acids, while WHO's table cite amounts per kg. As one can see, even with food, there are different shades of gray :)

Note: sustain human body and being active athlete are two different things. Therefore, to keep things simple (KISS method - 'keep it simple and stupid'), any food that doesn't have required amounts of essential amino acids will be considered INCOMPLETE, while others will be considered as COMPLETE protein sources. Again, this is very simplified, but ... :)

Food or
Supplement
Grams per 100g of product

Cyst
M+C
2.5

Hist

1.8

Isol

2.5

Leuc

5.5

Lysi

5.1

Meth
M+C
2.5

Phen
P+T
4.7

Thre

2.7

Tryp

0.7

Tyro
P+T
4.7

Vali

3.2

Complete

Protein

Note
Protein Carbs Fats Fibers
Almonds 21.2 21.6 49.4 12.2 0.9 2.6 3.3 7.0 2.7
0.7 5.3 2.8 1.0 2.1 3.9 No Fruits
Apricots 1.4 11.1 0.4 2.0 0.2 1.9 2.9 5.5 6.9 0.4 3.7 3.4 1.1 2.1 3.4 No
Fruits
Asparagus 2.2 3.9 0.1 2.1 1.4 2.2 3.4 5.8 4.7 1.4 3.4 3.8 1.2 2.4 5.2 No
Vegetable
Atlantic Salmon (wild) 19.9 0 6.3 0 1.1 2.9 4.6 8.1 9.2 3.0 3.9 4.4 1.1 3.4 5.1 Yes Sea food
Bananas 1.1 22.8 0.3 2.6 0.8 7.0 2.6 6.2 4.6 0.7 4.5 2.6 0.8 0.8 4.3 No  Fruits
Beef, Ground, 5% 21.5 0 5 0 1.0 3.3 4.4 7.8 8.3 2.6 3.8 3.9 0.6 3.1 4.9 No!!!
Lean meat
Beans, Black 21.6 62.4 1.4 15.5 1.1 2.8 4.4 8.0 6.9 1.5 5.4 4.2 1.2 2.8 5.2 Yes
Vegetable
Beans, Cranberry
23.0 60.0 1.2 24.7 1.1 2.8 4.4 8.0 6.9 1.5 5.4 4.2 1.2 2.8 5.3  Yes Vegetable
Beans, Fench
18.8 64.1 2 25.2 1.1 2.8 4.4 8.0 6.9 1.5 5.4 4.2 1.2 2.8 5.2  Yes Vegetable
Beans, Green
1.8 7.0 0.2 2.7 1.0 1.9 3.6 6.2 4.8 1.2 3.7 4.3 1.0 2.3 5.0  No Vegetable
Beans, Kidney
23.6 60 0.8 24.9 1.1 2.8 4.4 8.0 6.9 1.5 5.4 4.2 1.2 2.8 5.2  Yes Vegetable
Beans, Lima
21.46 63.4 0.7 19 1.1 3.1 5.3 8.6 6.7 1.3 5.8 4.3 1.2 3.5 6.0  No
Vegetable
Beans, Pinto 21.4 62.5 1.2 15.5 0.9 2.6 4.1 7.3 6.3 1.2 5.1 3.8 1.1 2.0 4.7  No
Vegetable
Broccoli
2.8 6.6 0.4 2.6 1.0 2.1 2.8 4.6 4.8 1.3 4.2 3.1 1.2 1.8 4.4  No
Vegetable
Buckwheat
13.2 71.5 3.4 10 1.7 2.3 3.8 6.3 5.1 1.3 3.9 3.8 1.4 1.8 5.1  Yes
Grains
1.3 5.8 0.1 2.5 0.9 1.7 2.3 3.2 3.4 0.9 2.5 2.7 0.9 1.5 3.3  No
Vegetable
Cashew Nuts
18.2 30.2 43.9 3.3 2.1 2.5 4.3 8.1 5.1 2.0 5.2 3.8 1.6 2.8 6.0  Yes
Fruits
Cauliflower
1.9 4.9 0.3 2.0 1.0 2.9 3.7 5.5 11.3 1.0 3.4 4.0 1.0 2.6 6.5  No
Vegetable
Chicken Breast
21.2 0 2.6 0 1.0 3.7 4.9 8.3 9.6 2.6 4.0 4.5 1.3 3.6 5.2  Yes
Lean meat
Chicken Egg
12.5 0.5 9.5 0 2.2 2.5 5.4 8.7 7.3 3.0 5.4 4.5 1.4 4.0 6.9  Yes Eggs
Chicken Egg White
10.9 0.7 0.2 0 2.7 2.7 6.1 9.4 7.4 3.7 6.3 4.1 1.1 4.2 7.4  Yes Eggs
Chicken Egg Yolk
15.9 3.6 26.5 0 1.6 2.6 5.5 8.8 7.7 2.4 4.3 4.4 1.1 4.3 6.0  Yes Eggs
Collards
3.0 5.4 0.6 4 0.8 1.3 2.5 3.8 3 0.8 2.3 2.3 0.8 1.8 3  No Vegetable
Common Octopus
14.9 2.2 1 0 1.3 1.9 4.6 7.0 7.4 2.3 3.6 4.3 1.1 3.2 4.4  Yes Sea food
Cottage Cheese 1%
12.4 2.7 1 0 1.0 3.3 5.9 10.2 8.1 3.0 5.4 4.4 1.1 5.3 6.2  Yes Dairy product
Couscous, dry
12.8 77.4 0.6 5 2.8 2.0 3.8 6.8 1.9 1.6 4.9 2.7 1.3 2.7 4.2 No Grain product
73 8 6 2 2.7 1.7 6 10.3 10.1 2.1 3.0 6.5 1.7 3.1 5.7 No Whey blend
Dymatize Nutrition ISO-100 - Gourmet Vanilla
89 0 0 0 1.6 1.6 7.1 10.1 7.1 1.5 2.3 6.1 1.6 2.0 6.6 No Whey
Eggplant
1 5.9 0.2 3 0.6 2.3 4.6 6.5 4.8 1.1 4.9 3.8 0.9 2.8 5.4 No Vegetable
75 15 4 ~0 2.4 1.8 1.9 10.8 9.0 2.0 3.3 6.3 1.7 3.0 5.7 No MRP
Lentils
25.8 60.1 1.1 30.5 1.3 2.8 4.3 7.2 7.0 0.9 5.0 3.6 0.9 2.7 5.0 No Vegetable
66 11 1 3 1.0 2.5 4.5 8.4 7.2 1.1 5.5 3.9 1.0 3.8 5.0 No
Plant Protein
69 6 3 6 1.2 2.6 4.4 8.0 6.7 1.4 5.2 3.6 1.0 3.7 5.0  Yes
Plant Protein
Macadamia Nuts
7.9 13.8 75.8 8.6 0.1 2.5 3.9 7.6 0.3 0.3 8.5 4.7 0.9 6.4 4.6 No
Fruits
Milk (2% fat)
3.3 5.0 2.0 0 3.3 2.1 5.5 10.0 7.0 2.4 4.8 3.0 1.2 4.5 6.7  Yes Dairy product
50 30 12 27 2 3.4 3.4 5.4 2.6 2 3.5 4.6 0.6 2.5 4.6 No Plant Protein
NutraFusion Nutritionals NitroFusion 71 14 6 3 1.1 5.1 5.8 9.3 6.0
1.3 5.0 3.5 0.9 3.6 6.4 No
Plant Protein
73 10 5 3 1.1 4.9 5.5 8.7 5.7
1.2 4.8 3.4 0.9 3.5 6.1 No
Plant Protein
82 3 5 0 1.3 2.7 4.8 8.1 6.2 1.7 5.2 3.8 1.3 3.8 4.9  Yes
Plant Protein
Orange 1.0 11.8 0.1 2.4 1.0 1.9 2.7 2.4 5.0 2.1 3.3 1.6 1.0 1.7 4.3  No
Fruits
Pacific Cod 15.3 0 0.4 0 0.9 2.1 4.4 7.9 9.2 2.7 3.9 4.3 1.2 3.6 4.8  Yes
Sea food
73 10 3 3 1.1
2.5
4.9
8.5 7.4
1.0
5.4
4.1
1.0
3.9 5.1
 No
Plant Protein
Peach 0.9 9.5 0.3 1.5 1.3 1.4 1.9 2.9 3.9 1.1 2.1 1.8 1.1 1.5 2.4  No
Fruits
Peanuts 25.8 16.1 49.2 8.5 1.3 2.5 3.5 6.5 3.6 1.2 5.2 3.4 1.0 4.1 4.2  No
Vegetable
5.4 14.5 0.4 5.1 0.6 2.0 3.6 6.0 5.9 1.5 3.7 3.7 0.7 2.1 4.3  No Vegetable
Pineapple 0.5 13.1 0.1 1.4 2.6 1.9 3.5 4.4 4.8 2.2 3.9 3.5 0.9 3.5 4.4  No
Fruits
Pork 20.4 0 2.1 0 1.1 4.3 4.9 8.5 9.3 2.7 4.2 4.5 1.0 3.8 5.2  Yes
Lean meat
Potatoes, red 1.9 15.9 0.1 1.7 1.2 1.7 3.2 4.8 5.2 1.5 4.0 3.3 1.0 2.3 5.0  No
Vegetable
Potatoes, white 1.7 15.7 0.1 2.4 1.2 1.6 3.2 4.6 5.2 1.5 3.9 3.3 1.0 2.3 5.0  No
Vegetable
Quail Eggs 13.1 0.4 11.1 0 2.4 2.5 6.3 8.8 6.7 3.2 5.7 4.9 1.6 4.1 7.2  Yes
Eggs
Rice, Brown 7.5 76.2 2.7 3.4 1.2 2.5 4.2 8.2 3.8 2.3 5.2 3.7 1.3 3.7 5.9 No
Grains
Rice, Wild 14.7 74.9 1.1 6.2 1.2 2.6 4.2 6.9 4.3 3.0 4.9 3.2 1.2 1.2 5.8 No
Grains
Shrimps, mixed species 13.6 0.9 1 0 1.2 2.2 4.6 8.6 9.5 2.9 4.3 4.0 1.1 3.8 4.7  Yes
Sea food
Spinach 2.9 3.6 0.4 2.2 1.2 2.2 5.1 7.8 6.1 1.9 4.5 4.3 1.4 3.8 5.6  Yes
Vegetable
68 22 4 9 2.5 2.1 4.4 8.3 3.5 3.1 5.5 3.8 1.2 5.4 6.0 No
Plant Protein
0.7 7.7 0.3 2 0.9 1.8 2.4 5.1 3.9 0.3 2.8 3.0 1.2 3.3 2.8 No Fruits
Sweet Corn, yellow
3.3 18.7 1.4 2 0.8 2.7 3.9 10.6 4.2 2.1 4.6 3.9 0.7 3.8 5.7 No Vegetable
Sweet Potato
1.6 20.1 0.1 3 1.4 2.0 3.5 5.9 4.2 1.9 5.7 5.3 2.0 2.2 5.5 No Vegetable
Tomato
0.9 3.9 0.2 1.2 1.0 1.6 2.1 2.8 3.1 0.7 3.1 3.1 0.7 1.6 2.1 No Vegetable
88 0 0 0 1.1 1.6 8.6 11.4 9.7 1.5 3.2 8.4 2.4 2.5 6.3 No
Whey isolate
90 3 0 0 2.4 1.6 6.2 10.7 11.1 2.2 2.8 6.5 1.7 2.8 5.6 No
Whey isolate
82 6 3 0 3.7 2.1 6.2 12.8 10.3 2.1 3.8 4.2 2.5 3.4 5.1 Yes
Whey blend
83 12 4 0 2.8 2.0 3.5 7.5 1.7 1.4 5.6 2.5 1.9 3.2 3.7 No
Plant Protein
82 0 3 0 1.3 2.6
4.9
8.2 6.3
1.3
5.2
3.8
1.3
3.8 5
Yes
Plant Protein
Yam
1.5 27.9 0.2 4.1 1.7 2.2 3.4 6.3 3.8 1.4 4.6 3.5 0.8 2.6 4.1 Yes
Vegetable
Walnuts
15.2 13.7 65.2 6.7 1.4 2.6 4.1 7.7 2.6 1.6 4.7 3.9 1.1 2.7 4.9 No
Fruits
Wheat Whole Grain Flour
13.2 72.0 2.5 10.7 2.1 2.7 3.5 6.8 2.7 1.7 5.2 2.8 1.3 2.0 4.3 No
Grains

Fruits - fruits are obviously bad protein sources, except certain varieties of nuts. First of all, their protein content is very low. Second, they often lack several essential amino acids, so even if someone is consuming larger amount of proteins from fruits, that protein is not so good. Sorry fruitarians ...

Green vegetables often lack one or two essential amino acids, but when combined with animal protein sources, one gets really balanced meals that are sources of complete protein. However, there are green vegetables that are sources of complete protein - for example, spinach!

Various beans can be considered as complete protein sources and those that can't, usually lack 'methionine + cystine' amino acids , but really not much. In fact, many people consider even them as complete protein sources.

Dairy products, meat and sea food can be considered as complete protein sources. However, check the beef in previous table! It lacks tryptophan - that is one of the reasons why PDCAAS score of beef in NOT 1, but 0.9.

Most of grains and pasta products are source of 'almost' complete plant protein, often lacking lysine only. There are grains that are sources of complete protein, for example, buckwheat.

Dairy based protein supplements (whey, casein) are usually complete protein sources, rarely lacking individual essential amino acids. Those lacking amino acids (they are there, just their amounts are not sufficient for those whey products to be considered complete protein sources) differ from product to product, since they depend on raw material, whey type, manufacturing process etc. Personally, I rarely buy two same whey proteins in a row - I cycle several of them and from time to time I test new ones. Also, it is good practice to add some BCAA, Glutamine, or even essential amino acids in powdered form (as separate supplement) into the PWM shake.

Egg protein supplements are sources of complete protein, just like eggs, egg whites and egg yolks.

Plant based protein supplements based on individual plants (for example yellow pea, brow rice, hemp ...), often lack essential acids that lack in plant they are derived from. Certain manufacturers remedy this by adding lacking amino acids, or more often, offer protein supplements based on plants in the form of protein blends. Such protein blends (mostly) have amino acids in ratios needed to be considered complete vegan protein sources. Soy protein supplements can be considered complete protein sources, although soy and it's products have other health issues (fitoestrogens anyone?).

Little Bit of Math - Again!

If we take into account WHO's and other recommendations for minimum daily intake of essential amino acids (EAA), then 100kg person should be consuming, per day, 80g of proteins (IMHO at least 150-200g for active athletes!) of which at least 23g (according to the first table by Institute of Medicine of the National Academies) or 18.4g (according to the third table by WHO) of essential amino acids in proper ratios.

Essential Amino Acid g per 100kg (IOM) g per 100kg (WHO) Beef (432g) Brown Rice (1.43kg) Sun Warrior Protein (172g) Cauliflower Egg Whites (734g)
Histidine 1.44g 1g 3.1g 2.7g 2.4g 2.9g 2.2g
Isoleucine 2g 2g 4.1g 4.5g 5.1g 3.7g 4.9g
Leucine 4.4g 3.9g 7.3g 8.8g 9.7g 5.5g 7.5g
Lysine 4.08g 3g 7.7g 4.08g 4.08g 11.3g 5.9g
Methionine + Cystine 2g 1.5g 3.3g 3.8g 6.5g 2g 5.1g
Phenylalanine + Tyrosine 3.76g 2.5g 6.4g 9.4g 12.7g 6.0g 8.4g
Threonine 2.16g 1.5g 3.6g 4.0g 4.4g 4.0g 3.4g
Tryptophan 0.56g 0.4g 0.56g 1.4g 1.4g 1g 0.9g
Valine 2.56g 2.6g 4.6g 6.3g 7.0g 6.5g 5.9g
Minimum Recommended EAA: ~23g (minimum) 18.4g (minimum) ~40.7g (total) ~45g (total) ~53g (total) ~43g (total) ~44g (total)
Total Protein: 80g 80g 93g (total)  107g (total) 116g (total) 100g (total) 80g (total)

Beef: problem with the beef as protein source is tryptophan. In order for a 100kg person to consume 0.56g of tryptophan (required minimum), that person must consume at least 432g of beef. This way, that person would consume ~40.7g (23g required minimum) of essential amino acids and 93g (80g required minimum) of total protein.

Brown Rice: Brown rice is great protein source in the form of brown protein powder, especially when it is mixed with other plant protein powders. However, brown rice lacks lysine and if 100kg person wants to consume 4.08g of lysine (required minimum), that person would have to eat at least 1.43kg (3.15 pounds) of rice. That amount of rice contains around 107g of total protein (80g required minimum) and 45g of EAA (23g required minimum) - but still lysine is rather low at 4.08g. Not to mention calories, carbs ... Anyway, brown rice is often mixed with various beans to balance the essential amino acids in individual or separate meals. Note that some beans are also deficient in lysine...

Sun Warrior Protein: Sun Warrior Protein is brown rice protein supplement in powdered form. Just as brown rice, it also lacks lysine and 100kg person requires around 172g of this protein powder in order to consume required 4.08g of lysine. Amount of other macronutrients in protein powder is much lower than in brown rice, of course, and such protein powders can and should be used for increasing protein intake by vegan athletes, just keep in mind that lysine issue!

Cauliflower: problem with cauliflower as complete protein source are amino acids containing sulfur (methionine and cystine). For a 100kg person to consume required amount of such EAAs, that person would have to eat ~5.2kg (11.5 pounds) of cauliflower. Total protein intake would have been around 100g (again, 80g required minimum) and around 43g of total EEAs (23g required minimum). Cauliflower is one of my favorite vegetables, especially mashed with green peas as a side dish for some lean animal protein food. But to relay solely on cauliflower as protein source, no thanks :)

Chicken Egg Whites: Chicken egg whites are know as great source of complete protein and here is little bit of math to support that - if one consumes ~734g of egg whites (cooked, fried, but NOT raw!), that person would consume 80g of protein (required minimum for 100kg person), but also around 44g of EAA with all amino acids in surplus (or at least over the required minimum). For your information, 80g of proteins means around 20-25 egg whites - divide that into 2-3 meals, combined with some vegetables (peas and cauliflower, for example, with some brown rice) and you don't have to worry about your daily intake of EAAs, BCAAs, total protein, fibers, complex carbs, etc.

Why 'Methionine + Cystine'?

Cystine is the amino acid formed by the oxidation of two cysteine molecules that covalently link to each other via a disulfide bond - in plain English - this disulfide bond and cystine as compound, they contain two sulfur atoms. Cysteine is a semi-essential amino acid, meaning that it can be synthesized in humans.

Methionine is an essential amino acid, and with cysteine, it is one of two sulfur-containing proteinogenic amino acids (amino acids that are precursors to proteins). Methionine, cysteine, homocysteine and taurine are the four common sulfur containing amino acids, but only methionine and cysteine are incorporated into proteins.
Homocysteine is similar to amino acid cysteine - the only difference in one additional methylene bridge (-CH2-).

Note: if you are going to study amino acids thoroughly, feel free to check external links at the end of this article. For me to do that, I would have to take a drink containing plenty of compound that consists of methyl group and hydroxyl group, with methylene bridge between them :) Chemistry rocks! :)

Why 'Phenylalanine + Tyrosine'?

Phenylalanine and tyrosine are aromatic amino acids that are used in protein synthesis. Phenylalanine is an essential amino acid for humans, and it must be obtained from the food. Tyrosine, however, can be synthesized from phenylalanine by adding a hydroxyl (OH-) group to the phenyl ring of phenylalanine by the enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase. Hence, it is considered a non-essential amino acid.

Both phenylalanine and tyrosine can be converted into compounds that affect mood and brain functioning - neurotransmitter dopamine, hormones adrenaline and noradrenaline etc. - changes in levels of these compounds can have great effects on mood disorders (for example depression) and diseases such as Parkinson's.


Long Story Short - balanced diet means varying your foods and hence - nutrient sources. We have really tried to verify data in these tables - if you notice anything wrong or odd, or want to ask us something, feel free to send us an email at info (at) staying-fit.net. Please, use these tables as informational reference only. Also, keep in mind that amino acids content vary in foods depending on the variety, growing conditions, climate etc, while amino acids content of supplements vary depending on variations of amino acids in raw material!

As one can see, it is easy to include foods that contain essential amino acids in your daily nutrition, it is just problem to have enough of them for building muscles and staying fit and healthy.

Recommended external links

(all links open in the new windows)

- An Overview of Phenylalanine and Tyrosine Kinetics in Humans, NCBI - National Center for Biotechnology Information

- Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and Amino Acids, Institute of Medicine of the National Academies

- Macronutrients Table (DRI_Macronutrients.pdf file), Institute of Medicine of the National Academies

- The Sulfur-Containing Amino Acids: An Overview, The Journal of Nutrition

- Protein and Amino Acid Requirements in Human Nutrition, WHO_TRS_935_eng.pdf, World Health Organization

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